What Are The Complications of High Blood Pressure That Occur In Patients?

What Are The Complications of High Blood Pressure That Occur In Patients?

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1. Information About Hypertension

Hypertension or high blood pressure is a condition that occurs when the pressure of blood flow against the artery walls tends to be high and continuous. According to WHO, hypertension is classified as follows:

* Level I hypertension: has a diastolic blood pressure level of 90 - 99 mmHg or a systolic blood pressure level of 140 - 159 mmHg.

* Grade II hypertension: with diastolic blood pressure between 100 - 109 mmHg or 160 - 179 mmHg with systolic blood pressure.

* Stage 3 hypertension: occurs when diastolic blood pressure reaches ≥ 110 mmHg and systolic blood pressure reaches about ≥ 180 mmHg.

* Isolated systolic hypertension: occurs when maximum blood pressure reaches ≥ 140 mmHg and minimum blood pressure is < 90 mmHg.

2. Complications of Hypertension That Occur In Patients

High blood pressure is considered a "silent killer" because the medical symptoms are not clear, so patients are often subjective and do not detect it in time. . It is especially easy to cause dangerous complications of high blood pressure such as:

Heart failure
When high blood pressure occurs, heart failure is one of the most dangerous complications that patients can encounter. The reason is that the heart needs to contract continuously with a higher capacity to pump blood to the peripheral vessels. When this condition lasts, the heart muscle tends to hypertrophy, has less elasticity than normal, and the function of pumping blood to the heart decreases sharply.
Besides the risk of heart failure, patients may also encounter other cardiovascular diseases or problems such as myocardial infarction, coronary artery disease, etc.
Problems related to peripheral arteries
Blood pressure Frequent increases cause peripheral arteries such as upper and lower limb arteries, carotid arteries, and renal arteries to be affected. Over time, it becomes hard, fibrous, calcified, and even clogged.
This complication of high blood pressure causes patients to often experience pain, numbness in their limbs, lose a lot of effort in moving, or be unable to move for long periods of time.

Complications of ocular hypertension
People with high blood pressure are at risk of ocular hypertension complications with retinopathy. The cause is damaged blood vessels in the retina. These blood vessels often tend to be constricted, swollen, or irregularly shaped. In the most severe cases, retinal hemorrhage can occur, causing the patient to have blurred vision or no longer be able to see.
Therefore, according to experts' recommendations, people with high blood pressure need to have their eyes checked periodically to quickly detect abnormal signs and promptly detect them.

Aortic dissection and aneurysm
Aortic dissection or aneurysm can occur in people with high blood pressure under the influence of pressure on the artery wall. Aneurysm occurs when the size of the aorta is >45mm. In case the size increases to > 55mm, the patient needs timely surgical intervention or arterial stent placement. To regularly monitor the risk of this high blood pressure complication, patients need to proactively check and conduct an echocardiogram or CT scan of the aorta.

Memory loss
Memory loss can occur when high blood pressure is not detected and treated promptly. This complication of hypertension is common in the elderly. This condition also has the risk of causing other brain diseases such as Alzheimer's.

High blood pressure also causes other problems such as:

* Erectile dysfunction in men.

* Diabetic disease.

* Kidney-related diseases.

3. How To Prevent High Blood Pressure For Patients

With the dangerous health complications that high blood pressure causes, the following preventive measures need to be taken:

  • Maintain a healthy diet with factors such as reducing salt intake, prioritizing the use of fruits and green vegetables, limiting the use of foods with high levels of saturated fat, etc.

  • Increase exercise and physical activity. For the elderly, you can maintain gentle exercises such as meditation, yoga, nutrition, walking,...

  • Avoid smoking, drinking alcohol, sweets or using stimulants.

  • Be able to rest properly, sleep on time and get enough sleep.

  • Reduce stress and prolonged stress.

  • Maintain and control weight at a reasonable level, lose weight if you are obese or overweight.

  • Regularly perform periodic health checks.

Complications of hypertension can occur to patients when the disease is not detected and intervened in time. Therefore, to avoid possible risks, people with high blood pressure need to proactively check and understand their health status periodically. At the same time, perform treatment as prescribed by your doctor.